Female Genital Mutilation FGM comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons as defined by the World Health Organisation WHO. Immediate consequences of FGM include severe pain and bleeding, shock, difficulty in passing urine, infections, injury to nearby genital tissue and sometimes death. T he procedure can result in death through severe bleeding leading to haemorrhagic shock, neurogenic shock as a result of pain and trauma, and overwhelming infection and septicaemia , according to Manfred Nowak, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The event itself is traumatic as girls are held down during the procedure. In addition to the severe pain during and in the weeks following the cutting, women who have undergone FGM experience various long-term effects - physical, sexual and psychological.
Greek Papyri in the British Museum. Educational efforts need to be accompanied by a suite of other actions to stand any hope of reducing rates of female genital mutilation, she adds, such as proper law enforcement. Some communities wait until the first pregnancy. In some places, FGM is Femal genital mutilation relatively new Femal genital mutilation that communities have adopted from neighboring communities. FGM is not invariably a rite of passage between childhood and adulthood, but is often performed on much younger children. Conceptions of Femsl care among Somali women in San Diego. They would risk being banned as doctors, she says. About Us. Other procedures include cauterizing, scraping, incising, pricking, or piercing the genital area, for reasons other than medical purposes. How bad these problems are depends on: 7.
Femal genital mutilation. Navigation menu
The precise number of girls and women who have undergone female genital mutilation has not been determined, but UNICEF estimates the figure is at least million spread across 30 countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and Arab countries. Good yaoi yuri anime last reviewed: 20 May Next review due: 20 May Elsewhere, support for the practice from women was strong. For these Femal genital mutilation, the U. Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa Mackie, Gerry June Femal genital mutilation Examples include images of women's vulvas after FGM or girls undergoing the procedure.
The prevalence of female genital mutilation remains high in a number of Arab countries.
- Female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting FGC , is practiced in 30 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa,  in parts of the Middle East   and Asia,   and within some immigrant communities in Europe, North America and Australia.
- In many settings, health care providers perform FGM due to the erroneous belief that the procedure is safer when medicalized 1.
- All A-Z health topics.
Female genital mutilation FGMalso known as female genital cutting and female circumcision[a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. Typically carried Cheap infant pageant dresses by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond.
They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans ; removal of the inner labia ; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure, known as infibulationa small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid ; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth.
The practice is rooted Sex amauteur video gender inequalityattempts to control women's sexualityand ideas about purity, modesty and beauty. It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour and fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion. Since the United Nations has called upon healthcare providers to stop performing all forms of the procedure, including reinfibulation after childbirth and symbolic "nicking" of the clitoral hood.
Until the s FGM was widely known in English as female circumcision, implying an equivalence in severity with male circumcision. In countries where FGM is common, the practice's many variants are reflected in dozens of terms, often alluding to purification. The surgical infibulation of women came to be known as pharaonic circumcision in Sudan, and as Sudanese circumcision in Egypt. The procedures are generally performed by a traditional circumciser cutter or exciseuse in the girls' homes, with or without anaesthesia.
The cutter is usually an older woman, but in communities where the male barber has assumed the role of health worker he will also perform FGM. A study in Ghana found that in four percent said they had not undergone FGM, but in said they had, while 11 percent switched in the other direction.
Type Ia [e] involves removal of the clitoral hood only. This is rarely performed alone. Type II excision is the complete or partial removal of the inner labiawith or without removal of the clitoral glans and outer labia.
Type IIa is removal of the inner labia; Type IIb, removal of the clitoral glans and inner labia; and Type IIc, removal of the clitoral glans, inner and outer labia. Excision in French can refer to any form of FGM. The element of speed and surprise is vital and the circumciser immediately grabs the clitoris by pinching it between her nails aiming to amputate it with a slash.
After the clitoris has been satisfactorily amputated Since the entire skin on the inner walls of the labia majora has to be removed all the way down to the perineum, this becomes a messy business. By now, the child is screaming, struggling, and bleeding profusely, which makes it difficult for the circumciser to hold with bare fingers and nails the slippery skin and parts that are to be cut or sutured together.
Having ensured that sufficient tissue has been removed to allow the desired fusion of the skin, the circumciser pulls together the opposite sides of the labia majora, ensuring that the raw edges where the skin has been removed are well approximated. The wound is now ready to be stitched or for thorns to be applied.
If a needle and thread are being used, close tight sutures will be placed to ensure that a flap of skin covers the vulva and extends from the mons veneris to the perineum, and which, after the wound heals, Big bbw boobs gallery form a bridge of scar tissue that will totally occlude the vaginal introitus.
The amputated parts might be placed in a pouch for the girl to wear. To help the tissue bond, the girl's legs are tied together, often from hip to ankle; the bindings are usually loosened after a week and removed after two to six weeks. The vagina is opened for sexual intercourse, for the first time either by a midwife with a knife or by the woman's husband with his penis.
Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation. This might be performed before marriage, and after childbirth, divorce and widowhood. The penetration of the bride's infibulation takes anywhere from 3 or 4 days to several months. Some who are unable to penetrate their wives manage to get them pregnant in spite of the infibulation, and the woman's vaginal passage is then cut open to allow birth to take place.
Those men who do manage to penetrate their wives do so often, or perhaps always, with the help of the "little knife". Type IV is "[a]ll other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes", including pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization. From the age of eight, girls are encouraged to stretch their inner labia using sticks and massage. Girls in Uganda are told they may have difficulty giving birth without stretched labia.
These were removed from the WHO's definition because of insufficient information about prevalence and consequences. Gishiri cutting involves cutting the vagina's front or back wall with a blade or penknife, performed in response to infertility, obstructed labour and other conditions.
In a study by Nigerian physician Mairo Usman Mandara, over 30 percent of women with gishiri cuts were found to have vesicovaginal fistulae holes that allow urine to seep into the vagina. FGM harms women's physical and emotional health throughout their lives. A systematic review of 56 studies suggested that over one in ten girls and women undergoing any form of FGM, including symbolic nicking of the clitoris Type IVexperience immediate complications, although the risks increased with Type III.
The review also suggested that there was under-reporting. The practitioners' use of shared instruments is thought to aid the transmission of hepatitis Bhepatitis C and HIValthough no epidemiological studies have shown this. Late complications vary depending on the type of FGM. Urine may collect underneath the scar, leaving the area under the skin constantly wet, which can lead to infection and the formation Femal genital mutilation small stones.
The opening is larger in women who are sexually active or have given birth by vaginal delivery, but the urethra opening may still be obstructed by scar tissue. Vesicovaginal or rectovaginal fistulae can develop holes that allow urine or faeces to seep into the vagina. Complete obstruction of the vagina can result in hematocolpos and hematometra where the vagina and uterus fill with menstrual blood.
Neonatal mortality is increased. The estimate was based on a study conducted on 28, women attending delivery wards at 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan. The reasons for this were unclear, but may be connected to genital and Free supermodel clipart tract infections and the presence of scar tissue.
According to a systematic review there is little high-quality information available on the psychological effects of FGM. Several small studies have concluded that women Adult christian teacher training FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
One third reported reduced sexual feelings. Was any flesh or something removed from the genital area? Was your genital area sewn? Over million women and girls are thought to be living with FGM in those 30 countries. The highest concentrations among the 15—49 age group are in Somalia 98 percentGuinea 97 percentDjibouti 93 percentEgypt 91 percent and Sierra Leone 90 percent.
The prevalence rate for Femal genital mutilation 0—11 group in Indonesia is 49 percent Prevalence figures for the 15—19 age group and younger show a downward trend.
FGM is not invariably a rite of passage between childhood and adulthood, but is often performed on much younger children. In Kenya, for example, the Kisi cut around age 10 and the Kamba at A country's national prevalence often reflects a high sub-national prevalence among certain ethnicities, rather than a widespread practice. For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia.
Dahabo Musa, a Somali woman, described infibulation in a poem as the "three feminine sorrows": the procedure itself, the wedding night when the woman is cut open, then childbirth when she is cut again.
Like FGM, footbinding was carried out on young girls, nearly universal where practised, tied to ideas about honour, chastity and appropriate marriage, and "supported and transmitted" by women.
FGM practitioners see the procedures as marking not only ethnic boundaries but also gender difference.
According to this view, Sexy mature ladies pictures circumcision defeminizes men while FGM demasculinizes women. African female symbolism revolves instead around the concept of the womb. In communities where infibulation is common, there is a preference for women's genitals to be smooth, dry and without odour, and both women and men may find the natural vulva repulsive.
Common reasons for FGM cited by women in surveys are social acceptance, religion, hygiene, preservation of virginity, marriageability and enhancement of male sexual pleasure. In Sudan in42 percent of women who had heard of FGM said the practice should continue. Against the argument that women willingly choose FGM for their daughters, UNICEF calls the practice a "self-enforcing social convention" to which families feel they must conform to avoid uncut daughters facing social exclusion.
The Zabarma girls would respond Ya, mutmura! A mutmara was a storage pit for grain that was continually opened and closed, like an infibulated woman.
But despite throwing the insult back, the Zabarma girls would ask their mothers, "What's the matter? Don't we have razor blades like the Arabs? Because of poor access to information, and because circumcisers downplay the causal connection, women may not associate the health consequences with the procedure. When informed of the causal relationship between FGM and ill health, Mackie wrote, the women broke down and wept. He argued that surveys taken before and after this sharing of information would show very different levels of support for FGM.
There is no mention of FGM in the Bible. In UNICEF identified 19 African countries in which at least 10 percent of Christian women and girls aged 15 to 49 had undergone FGM; [y] in Niger, 55 percent of Christian women and girls had experienced it, compared with two percent of their Muslim counterparts.
Judaism requires male circumcision but does not allow FGM. The practice's origins are unknown. Gerry Mackie has suggested that, because FGM's east-west, north-south distribution in Africa meets in Sudan, infibulation may have begun there with the Meroite civilization c.
The spell was found on the sarcophagus of Sit-hedjhotep, now in the Egyptian Museumand dates to Egypt's Middle Kingdom. O'Rourke argues that ' m't probably refers instead to a menstruating woman. The examination of mummies has shown no evidence of FGM. Citing the Australian pathologist Grafton Elliot Smithwho examined hundreds of mummies in the early 20th century, Knight writes that the genital area may resemble Type III because during mummification the skin of the outer labia was pulled toward the anus to cover the pudendal cleftpossibly to prevent sexual violation.
It was similarly not possible to determine whether Types I or II had been performed, because soft tissues had deteriorated or been removed by the embalmers.
The Greek geographer Strabo c. The surgery is performed in this way: Have the girl sit on a chair while a muscled young man standing behind her places his arms below the girl's thighs. Have him separate and steady her legs and whole body. Standing in front and taking hold of the clitoris with a broad-mouthed forceps in his left hand, the surgeon stretches it outward, while with the right hand, he cuts it off at the point next to the pincers of the forceps. It is proper to let a length remain from that cut Swinger magizenes, about the size of the membrane that's between the nostrils, so as to take away the excess material only; as I have said, the part to be removed is at that point just above the pincers of the forceps.
Because the clitoris is a skinlike structure and stretches out excessively, do not cut off too much, as a urinary fistula may result from cutting such large growths too deeply. The genital area was then cleaned with a sponge, frankincense powder and wine or cold water, and wrapped in linen bandages dipped in vinegar, until the seventh day when calaminerose petals, date pits, or a "genital powder made from baked clay" might be applied.
Whatever the practice's origins, infibulation became linked to slavery. Thus, Mackie argues, a "practice associated with shameful female slavery came to stand for honor".
Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” FGM is a violation of girls’ and women’s human rights. While the exact number of girls and women worldwide who have undergone FGM remains unknown, at least million girls and women have. May 17, · Female genital mutilation causes severe pain and significant long-term psychological and physical problems. Here are some of the key points you need to . May 06, · Female Genital Mutilation: What It Does To A Woman: Goats and Soda The charges brought against two U.S. doctors for alleged female genital mutilation brought renewed attention to .
Femal genital mutilation. No health benefits, only harm
In some cultures, this opening and narrowing is done several times throughout a female's life. In Nnaemeka, Obioma ed. Mackie, Gerry June If you're worried about FGM, print out this statement, take it abroad with you and show it to your family. The summer holidays are when many young girls are taken abroad, often to their family's birth country, to have FGM performed. Clitoridectomy Dysmenorrhea Dyspareunia Gishiri cutting Husband stitch Infibulation Keloid scars Pelvic inflammatory disease Rectovaginal fistula Vesicovaginal fistula. El Guindi, Fadwa Nzegwu, Nkiru An Arab reluctance to discuss sexual orientation and sexuality makes it difficult to study related topics in the Middle East, researchers say. In addition to policies within the U. Female genital mutilation involves the removal of the clitoris, inner-and-outer lips of the vagina, and the sewing or stapling together of the two sides of the vulva leaving only a small hole to pass urine and menstruate — depending on the type. Building on a previous report from , in UNICEF launched an updated report documenting the prevalence of FGM in 30 countries, as well as beliefs, attitudes, trends, and programmatic and policy responses to the practice globally. It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour and fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion.
The term female genital mutilation FGM includes any injury to a woman or girl's genitalia for reasons other than medical ones, commonly religious. The practice is thought to have started before the advent of either Christianity or Islam.
While the exact number of girls and women worldwide who have undergone FGM remains unknown, at least million girls and women have been cut in 30 countries with representative data on prevalence. Type II : Partial or total removal of the clitoris and labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora. Type IV : All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization. FGM is condemned by a number of international treaties and conventions, as well as by national legislation in many countries. However, FGM is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. In these contexts, however, the available evidence comes from sometimes outdated small-scale studies or anecdotal accounts, and there are no representative data as yet on prevalence.