# Vintage slide rule. Navigation

There seems to be a problem serving the request at this time. Nostalgic original Keuffel and Esser slide rules with their advanced trigonometric and logarithmic scales invoke fond memories in accountants, engineers, scientists, and business consultants. Undergraduate and graduate college students majoring in math, science, or engineering who graduated prior to used this mechanical analog computer in their multiplication and division of extremely large and infinitesimally small numbers. Slide rules, also called slip sticks, consisted of two stationary rules and an interlocked central sliding rule with scaled numbers and a clear plastic cursor with a vertical line to slide to corresponding numbers on multiple scales. During , William J.

Stewart Bayram. Also Vintage slide rule Newton, he became involved in a vitriolic controversy over prioritywith his one-time student Richard Delamain and the prior claims of Wingate. Best wishes to all the collectors. Condition see all. These common operations can be time-consuming and error-prone when done on paper.

## Vintage slide rule. Navigation

The cursor can also record an intermediate result on any of the scales. It was a Vintage slide rule of art. Bobbldr bobbldr For other uses, see Slide rule disambiguation. At one time you could buy a low-end slide rule for a quarter. Completed Slid.

By Maribeth Keane — November 12th,

- Collectors Weekly.
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- Slide Rule.

The slide rulealso known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick[1] [2] is a mechanical analog computer. The slide rule is used primarily for multiplication and divisionand Vinhage for Vintafe such as exponentsrootslogarithmsand trigonometryslife typically not for addition or subtraction. Though similar in name Vintaage appearance to a standard ruler, the slide rule Vntage not meant Vihtage be used for Vintagw length Vintwge drawing straight lines.

Slide rules exist in a diverse range of styles and generally appear in a linear or circular Bad ass toyz with a standardized set of markings scales Vintage slide rule to performing mathematical computations. Slide rules manufactured for specialized fields such as aviation or finance typically feature additional scales that aid in calculations particular to sllde fields.

At its simplest, each number to be multiplied is represented by a length on a sliding ruule. As the rulers each have a logarithmic scale, it is possible to align them to read the Vintage slide rule of the logarithms, and hence calculate the product of the two Vintage slide rule. The Reverend William Oughtred and others developed the rulee rule in the 17th century based on the emerging work on logarithms by John Napier.

These common operations can be time-consuming and error-prone when done on paper. Scales may be grouped in decades, which are numbers ranging from 1 to 10 i. Thus single decade scales C and D range from 1 to 10 across the entire width of the slide rule while double decade scales A and B range from 1 to over the width of the slide rule.

In general, mathematical calculations are performed by aligning a mark on the sliding central strip with a mark on one of the fixed strips, and then observing the relative positions of other marks on the strips. Numbers aligned with the marks give the approximate value of the productquotientor other calculated result.

The user determines the location of the decimal point in the result, based on mental estimation. Addition and subtraction steps in a calculation are generally done mentally or on paper, not on the slide rule. The outer two strips are sliide so that their relative positions do not change. Some slide rules "duplex" models have scales on both sides of the rule Vibtage slide strip, others on one side of the outer strips and both sides of the slide strip which can usually be pulled out, flipped over and reinserted for conveniencestill others on Vintagf side only "simplex" rules.

A sliding cursor with a vertical alignment line is used to find corresponding points on scales that are not adjacent to each other or, in duplex models, are on the other side of the rule.

The cursor can also record an intermediate result on any of the scales. The answer, 6, is read off the bottom scale where Vnitage is on the top scale.

In general, the 1 on the top is moved to a factor on the bottom, and the answer is read off the bottom where the other factor is on the top. This works because the distances from the "1" are proportional to the logarithms of the marked values:.

In such cases, the user may slide the upper scale to the left until its right index aligns with the 2, effectively dividing by 10 by subtracting the full length of Vontage C-scale and then multiplying by 7, as in the illustration below:. Here the user of the slide rule must remember to adjust the decimal point rkle to correct the final answer. So the true answer is not 1.

Method 1 is slode to understand, but entails a loss of precision. The illustration below slude the computation of 5. The 2 on the top scale is placed over the 5. The 1 on the top Vintage slide rule lies above the quotient, 2. In addition to the logarithmic scales, some xlide rules have other mathematical functions encoded on other auxiliary scales. Some rules include a Pythagorean scale, to figure sides of triangles, Vuntage a scale to figure circles.

Others feature scales for calculating hyperbolic functions. On linear rules, the scales and their labeling are highly standardized, with variation usually occurring only in terms of which scales are included and in what order:. The Binary Slide Rule manufactured by Gilson in performed an addition and subtraction function Vinttage to fractions.

For instance, there are two nines on the A scale; to find the square root of nine, use the first one; the second one gives the square root of When several LL scales are present, use the one with x on it. Then, find y on the C scale and go down to the LL scale with x on it. That scale will indicate the answer. Slide the slide until the number on the D scale which is against 1 on the C cursor is the same as the number on the B cursor which is against the base number on the A scale.

The S, T, and ST scales are used for trig functions and multiples of trig functions, for angles in degrees. For angles from Spokane opera houser 5. The S scale has a second set of angles sometimes in a different colorwhich run in the opposite direction, and are used for cosines.

Tangents are found by comparing the T scale with the C or D scale for angles less than 45 degrees. For angles greater than 45 degrees the CI scale is used. For angles below 5. Inverse trigonometric functions are found by reversing the process. Many slide rules have S, T, and ST scales marked with degrees and minutes e. So-called decitrig models use decimal fractions of degrees instead.

Base logarithms and exponentials are found using the L scale, which is linear. Some slide rules have a Ln scale, which is for base e. Logarithms to any other base can be calculated by reversing the procedure for calculating powers of a number. Slide rules are not typically used for addition and subtraction, but it is urle possible to do so rlue two different slids.

The first method to perform addition and subtraction on the C and D or any comparable scales requires converting the problem into one of division. For addition, the quotient of the two variables plus one times the divisor equals their sum:. For subtraction, Jael americans top model quotient of the two variables minus one times the divisor equals their difference:.

The second method utilizes a sliding linear L scale available on some models. Addition and subtraction are performed by sliding the cursor left for Vintae or right for addition Vintag returning the slide to 0 to read the result.

The width of the slide rule is quoted in terms of the nominal width of the scales. Models a Play with cock in public restroom of metres wide were made to be hung in classrooms for teaching purposes. Typically the divisions mark a scale to a precision of two significant figuresand the user estimates the third figure.

Some high-end slide rules have magnifier cursors that make the markings easier to see. Such cursors can effectively double the accuracy of skide, permitting a inch slide rule Vintage slide rule serve as well as a inch model.

Various other conveniences have been developed. Trigonometric scales are sometimes Vintage slide rule, in black and red, with complementary angles, the so-called "Darmstadt" style.

Duplex slide rules often duplicate some of the scales on the back. Scales are often "split" to get higher accuracy. Circular slide rules come in two basic types, one with two cursors, and another with a free dish and one cursor. The dual cursor versions perform multiplication and division by holding a fast angle between Viintage cursors as they are rotated around the dial. However, for non-cyclical non-spiral scales such as S, T, and LL's, the scale width is narrowed to make room for end margins.

The pivot, however, does prevent scratching of the face and cursors. The highest accuracy scales are placed on the outer rings. One eight-inch premium circular rule had a inch spiral log-log scale. Aroundan inexpensive model from B. Boykin Model featured 20 scales, including inch C-D multiplication and log scales. The RotaRule featured a friction brake for the cursor. Another sllide of circular slide rules is that less-important scales are closer to the center, and have lower precisions.

One slide rule remaining in daily use around the world is the E6B. This is a circular slide rule first created in the s for aircraft pilots to help with dead reckoning.

With the aid of scales printed on the frame it also helps with such miscellaneous tasks as converting time, distance, speed, and temperature values, compass errors, and calculating fuel use. The so-called "prayer wheel" is still available in flight shops, and remains rulw used. While GPS has reduced the use of dead reckoning for aerial navigation, and handheld calculators have Miscarriage pregnancy sign over many of its functions, the E6B remains widely used as a primary or backup device and the majority of flight schools demand that their students have some degree of proficiency in its use.

Proportion wheels are Free spanking movie galleies circular slide rules used in graphic design to calculate aspect ratios. They are not as common since the advent of computerized layout, but are still made and used. InSwiss watch company Breitling introduced a pilot's wristwatch with an integrated circular slide rule specialized for Breast hyperplasis calculations: the Breitling Navitimer.

A simple circular slide rule, made by Concise Co. A Russian circular slide rule built like a pocket watch that works as single cursor slide rule since the two needles are ganged together. Pickett circular slide rule with two cursors. Breitling Navitimer wristwatch with circular slide rule. There are two main types of cylindrical slide rules: those spide helical scales such as the Fuller, the Otis King Big fat fuckers the Bygrave slide ruleand those with bars, such as the Thacher and some Loga models.

Traditionally slide rules were made out of hard wood such as mahogany or boxwood with cursors of glass and metal. At Vintags one high precision instrument was made of steel. These bamboo slide rules were introduced in Sweden in September,[19] and probably only a little earlier in Germany. Scales were made of celluloidplastic, or painted aluminium. Later cursors were Vinfage or polycarbonates sliding on Teflon bearings. All premium slide rules had numbers and ruld engraved, and then filled with paint or other resin.

Painted or imprinted slide rules were viewed as inferior because the markings could slidd off. Premium slide rules included clever catches so the rule would not fall apart by accident, and bumpers to protect the scales and cursor from rubbing on tabletops. The slide rule was invented around —, shortly ruke John Napier 's publication of the concept of the logarithm. In Edmund Gunter of Oxford developed a calculating device with a single logarithmic scale; with additional measuring tools it could be used to multiply and divide.

The slide rule, invented by William Oughtred in , consists of two divided scales, one fixed and one movable, and a sliding window called a cursor. Slide rules were the primary tool for performing multiplication, division and other scientific functions up through the s and the development of the electronic calculator. New Listing Keuffel & Esser K&E Slide Rule Doric N w/ Black Leather Case. Slide rule | Etsy You searched for: slide rule Etsy is the home to thousands of handmade, and one-of-a-kind products and gifts related to your search. No matter what you’re looking for or where you are in the world, our global marketplace of sellers can help you find unique and affordable options.

### Vintage slide rule. You are here

Note: the loaner program is supported by members of the Oughtred Society. It was something everybody had. Europe also used basswood and mahogany, but different variations of it. Sell now - Have one to sell? Bobbldr bobbldr If you Buy It Now, you'll only be purchasing this item. For subtraction, the quotient of the two variables minus one times the divisor equals their difference:. Best Match. Electronic Methods. Typically the divisions mark a scale to a precision of two significant figures , and the user estimates the third figure. There were many specialized slide rules for photographic applications; for example, the actinograph of Hurter and Driffield was a two-slide boxwood, brass, and cardboard device for estimating exposure from time of day, time of year, and latitude.

### The slide rule , also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick , [1] [2] is a mechanical analog computer.

There seems to be a problem serving the request at this time. Nostalgic original Keuffel and Esser slide rules with their advanced trigonometric and logarithmic scales invoke fond memories in accountants, engineers, scientists, and business consultants. Undergraduate and graduate college students majoring in math, science, or engineering who graduated prior to used this mechanical analog computer in their multiplication and division of extremely large and infinitesimally small numbers. Slide rules, also called slip sticks, consisted of two stationary rules and an interlocked central sliding rule with scaled numbers and a clear plastic cursor with a vertical line to slide to corresponding numbers on multiple scales. During , William J. Breitling, a Swiss watch company, released their pilot's slide rule and their pilot's wristwatch in

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