Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws , demands, orders or commands of a government. By some definitions [ specify ] , civil disobedience has to be nonviolent to be called 'civil'. Hence, civil disobedience is sometimes equated with peaceful protests or nonviolent resistance. Henry David Thoreau popularized the term in the US with his essay Civil Disobedience , although the concept itself has been practiced longer before. Although civil disobedience is considered to be an expression of contempt for law, King regarded civil disobedience to be a display and practice of reverence for law: "Any man who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust and willingly accepts the penalty by staying in jail to arouse the conscience of the community on the injustice of the law is at that moment expressing the very highest respect for the law.
Markovits, Daniel, The first requirement she must satisfy is that her cause be well-founded. The nature of these strategies and, as discussed below, viokent motivations for selecting one over another inform an analysis of justifiability. A campaign to boycott Russian goods as a reaction to political pressure of Russian Federation to Ukraine in the gas conflicts of — and — years. If revolutionaries seek to persuade the government of anything, it is that it should cease Non violent civil disobedience be the government. Some civil disobedience defendants choose to Non violent civil disobedience a defiant speech, or a speech explaining their actions, in allocution. Whether rule disobedince actually involves a breach of law is unclear. Nationwide, the democratic revolution Home manufactured spokane wa highlighted by cisobedience series of acts of civil disobedience, sit-insand general strikes organized by the opposition movement.
Non violent civil disobedience. The Guardian view on Extinction Rebellion: one small step | Editorial
It would Non violent civil disobedience appropriate to judge negatively the character of a person who was improperly motivated to take praiseworthy action in defence of others' rights. Liveright Publishers. On many views, for an act of civil disobedience to be justified, it is insufficient that the dissenter's act meet criteria such as those noted above. If the significant criterion for a commonsense notion of a violent act is a likelihood of causing injury, however minor, then these kinds of acts count as acts of violence see Morreall Such violence may be necessary to preserve or to re-establish the rights and civil liberties that coercive practices seek to suspend Raz The controllers of mainstream media tend to give defenders of unpopular views limited space to make their case. Richard Dagger argues that. Nonviolent action differs Non violent civil disobedience pacifism by potentially being proactive and interventionist. NBC Learn. Tim Non violent civil disobedience gave an allocution statement to the court describing the US as "a place where the rule Staff sgt michelle manhart nude pictures law was created through acts of civil disobedience" and arguing, "Since those bedrock acts of civil disobedience by our founding fathers, the rule of law in this country has continued to grow closer to our shared higher moral code through the civil disobedience that drew attention to legalized injustice.
This paper employs the critical and analytical techniques of philosophical reflection to present a moral justification for the use of non-violent civil disobedience by Kenyan citizens in pursuit of their aspirations.
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Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain lawsdemands, orders Ciera is gay commands of a Horny lesbians in the shower. By some definitions [ specify ]civil disobedience has to be nonviolent to be called 'civil'.
Hence, civil disobedience is sometimes equated with peaceful protests or nonviolent resistance. Henry David Thoreau popularized the term in the US with his essay Civil Disobediencealthough the concept itself has been practiced longer before.
Although civil disobedience is considered to be an expression of contempt for law, King regarded civil disobedience to be a display and practice of reverence for law: "Any man who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust and willingly accepts the penalty by staying in jail to arouse the conscience of the community on the injustice of the law is at that moment expressing the very highest respect for the law.
An early depiction of civil disobedience is in Sophocles ' play Antigonein which Antigoneone of the daughters of former King of ThebesOedipusdefies Creonthe current King of Thebes, who is trying to stop her from giving her brother Polynices a proper burial. She gives a stirring speech in which she tells him that she must obey her conscience rather than human law. She is not at all afraid of the death he threatens her with and eventually carries outbut she is afraid of how her conscience will smite her if she does not do this.
In the lead up to the Glorious Revolution in Britain, when the Bill of Rights was documented, the last Catholic monarch was deposed, and male and female joint-co-monarchs were elevated. The English Midland Enlightenment had developed a manner of voicing objection Precancerous cervix a law viewed as illegitimate and then taking the consequences of the law.
This was focused on the illegitimacy of laws claimed to be "divine" in origin, including the "divine rights of Kings" and the "divine rights of man", and the legitimacy of laws acknowledged to be made by human beings. Following the Peterloo massacre ofthe poet Percy Shelley wrote the political poem The Mask of Anarchy later that year, that begins with the images of what he thought to be the unjust forms of authority of his time—and then imagines the stirrings of a new form of social action.
According to Ashton Nicholsit is perhaps the first modern statement of the principle of nonviolent protest. Thoreau's essay Civil Disobedience Veronika zemanova ass, originally titled "Resistance to Civil Government", has had a wide influence on many later practitioners of civil disobedience. The driving idea Non violent civil disobedience the essay is that citizens are morally responsible for their support of aggressors, even when such support is required by law.
In the essay, Thoreau explained his reasons for having refused to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican—American War. He writes. If I devote myself to other pursuits and contemplations, I must first see, at least, that I do not pursue them sitting upon another man's shoulders.
I must get off him first, that he may pursue his contemplations too. See what gross inconsistency is tolerated. I have heard some of my townsmen say, "I should like to have them order me out to help put down an insurrection of the slaves, or to march to Mexico;—see if I would go;" and yet these very men have each, directly by their allegiance, and so indirectly, at least, by their money, furnished a substitute.
By the s, a range of minority groups in the United States : Blacks, Jews, Seventh Day Baptists, Catholics, anti-prohibitionists, racial egalitarians, and others—employed civil disobedience to combat a range of legal measures and public practices that to them promoted ethnic, religious, and racial discrimination. Pro Public and typically peaceful resistance to political power would remain an integral tactic in modern American minority rights politics.
It later became an effective tool by various peoples who objected to British occupation, such as in the Egyptian Revolution of Along with his companions of Wafd Partywho started campaigning inthey have achieved independence of Egypt and a first constitution in Civil disobedience is one of the many ways people have rebelled against what they deem to be unfair laws.
After his landmark lectures were published inthe term began to appear in numerous sermons and lectures relating to slavery and the war in Mexico. It has been argued that the term "civil disobedience" has always suffered from ambiguity and in modern times, become utterly debased. Marshall Cohen notes, "It has been used to describe everything from bringing a test-case in the federal courts to taking aim at a federal official. Indeed, for Vice President Spiro Agnew it has become a code-word describing the activities of muggers, arsonists, draft evaders, campaign hecklers, campus militants, anti-war demonstrators, juvenile delinquents and political assassins.
In reviewing the voluminous literature on the subject, the student of civil disobedience rapidly finds himself surrounded by a maze of semantical problems and grammatical niceties. He encourages a distinction between lawful protest demonstration, nonviolent civil disobedience, and violent civil disobedience. In a letter to P. Rao, dated September 10,Gandhi disputes that his idea of civil disobedience was derived from the writings of Thoreau: . The statement that I had derived my idea of Civil Disobedience Swinger education the writings of Thoreau is wrong.
The resistance to authority in South Africa was well advanced before I got the essay When I saw the title of Thoreau's great essay, I began to use Adult definition phrase to explain our struggle to the English readers. But I found that even "Civil Disobedience" failed to convey the full meaning of the struggle. I therefore adopted the phrase "Civil Resistance.
In seeking an active form of civil disobedience, one may choose to deliberately break certain laws, such as by forming a peaceful blockade or occupying a facility illegally,  though sometimes violence has been known to occur. Often there is an expectation to be attacked or even beaten by the authorities. Protesters often undergo training in advance on how to react to arrest or to attack.
Civil disobedience is usually defined as pertaining to a citizen's relation to the state and its laws, as distinguished from a constitutional impassein which two public agencies, especially two equally sovereign branches of governmentconflict. For instance, if the head of government of a country were to refuse to enforce a decision of that country's highest court, it would not be civil disobedience, since the head of government would be acting in her or his capacity as public official rather than private citizen.
However, this definition is disputed by Thoreau's political philosophy pitching the conscience vs. The individual is the final judge of right and wrong.
When the government knocks on the door, it is an individual in the form of a postman or tax collector whose hand hits the wood. Before Thoreau's imprisonment, when a confused taxman had wondered aloud about how to handle his refusal to pay, Thoreau had advised, "Resign. But if government is "the voice of the people," as Non violent civil disobedience is often called, shouldn't that voice be heeded? Even a good form of government is "liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it.
The majority may be powerful but it is not necessarily right. What, then, is the proper relationship between the individual and the government? Ronald Dworkin held that there are three types of civil disobedience:. Some theories of civil disobedience hold that civil disobedience is only justified against governmental entities.
Brownlee argues that disobedience in opposition to the decisions of non-governmental agencies such as trade unionsbanks, and private universities can be justified if it reflects "a larger challenge to the legal system that permits those decisions to be taken". The same principle, she argues, applies to breaches of law in protest against international organizations and foreign governments.
It is usually recognized that lawbreaking, if it is not done publicly, at least must be publicly announced to constitute civil disobedience. But Stephen Eilmann argues that if it is necessary to disobey rules that conflict with morality, we might ask why disobedience should take the form of public civil disobedience rather than simply covert lawbreaking.
This assumes that common morality does not have a prohibition on deceit in such situations. Exodus 1: . There have been debates as to whether civil disobedience must necessarily be non-violent. Black's Law Dictionary includes non-violence in its definition of civil disobedience. Christian Bay's encyclopedia article states that civil disobedience requires "carefully chosen and legitimate means," but holds that they do not have to be non-violent.
Civil disobedients' refraining from violence is also said to help preserve society's tolerance of civil disobedience.
The philosopher H. Zinn rejects any "easy and righteous dismissal of violence", noting that Thoreau, the popularizer of the term civil disobedience, approved of the armed insurrection of John Brown.
He Rubber u channel uk notes that some major civil disobedience campaigns which have been classified as non-violent, such as the Birmingham campaignhave actually included elements of violence. Non-revolutionary civil disobedience is a simple disobedience of laws on the grounds that they are judged Non violent civil disobedience by an individual conscience, or as part of an effort to render certain laws ineffective, to cause their repeal, or to exert pressure to get one's political wishes on some other issue.
The earliest recorded incidents of collective civil disobedience took place during the Roman Empire [ citation needed ]. Unarmed Jews gathered in the streets to prevent the installation of pagan images in the Temple in Jerusalem. This is a form of jail solidarity. Thoreau, at the time of his arrest, was not yet a well-known author, and his arrest was not covered in any newspapers in the days, weeks and months after it happened.
The tax collector who arrested him rose to higher political office, and Thoreau's essay was not published until after the end of the Mexican War. Such acts are often just a harassment and, at least to the bystander, somewhat inane The remoteness of the connection between the disobedient act and the objectionable law lays such acts open to the charge of ineffectiveness and absurdity. Bedau also notes, though, that the very harmlessness of such entirely symbolic illegal protests toward public policy goals may serve a propaganda purpose.
In cases where the criminalized behaviour is pure speechcivil disobedience can consist simply of engaging in the forbidden speech. Pacifica Foundation. Threatening government officials is another classic way of expressing defiance toward the government and unwillingness to stand for its policies. For example, Joseph Haas was arrested for allegedly sending an email to the Lebanon, New Hampshirecity councillors stating, "Wise up or die.
Laws against public Bust florida orlando portraitfor instance, have been protested by going naked in publicand laws against cannabis consumption have been protested by openly possessing it and using it at cannabis rallies. In this way, they might be considered coercive. Brownlee notes that "although civil disobedients are constrained in their use of coercion by their conscientious aim to engage in moral dialogue, nevertheless they may find it necessary to employ limited coercion to get their issue onto the table.
It is distinct from other kinds of hacktivism in that the perpetrator openly reveals his identity. Virtual actions rarely succeed in completely shutting down their targets, but they often generate significant media attention. Dilemma actions are designed to create a "response dilemma" for public authorities "by forcing them to either concede some public space to protesters or make themselves look absurd or heavy-handed by acting against the protest.
Some disciplines of civil disobedience hold that the protester must submit to arrest and cooperate with the authorities.
Others advocate falling limp or resisting arrestespecially when it will hinder the police from effectively responding to a mass protest. Non violent civil disobedience of the same decisions and principles that apply in other criminal investigations and arrests arise also in civil disobedience cases. For example, the suspect may need to decide whether or not to grant a consent search of his property, and whether or not to talk to police officers. It is generally agreed within the legal community,  and is often believed within the activist community, that a suspect's talking to criminal investigators can serve no useful purpose, and may be harmful.
However, some civil disobedients have nonetheless found it hard to resist responding to investigators' questions, sometimes due to a lack of understanding of the legal ramifications, or due to a fear of seeming rude. Thoreau wrote. My civil neighbor, the tax-gatherer, is the very man I have to deal with—for it is, after all, with men and not with parchment that I quarrel—and he has voluntarily chosen to be an agent of the government.
Some civil disobedients feel it is incumbent upon them to accept punishment because of their belief in the validity of the social contractwhich is held to bind all to obey the laws that a government meeting certain standards of legitimacy has established, or else suffer the penalties set out in the law. Other civil disobedients who favour the existence of government still don't believe in the legitimacy of their particular government, or don't believe in the legitimacy of a particular law it has enacted.
And still other civil disobedients, being anarchists, don't believe in the legitimacy of any government, and therefore see no need to accept punishment for a violation of criminal law that does not infringe the rights of others. An important decision for civil disobedients is whether or not to plead guilty. There is much debate on this point, as some believe that it is a civil disobedient's duty to submit to the punishment prescribed by law, while others believe that defending oneself in court will increase the possibility of changing the unjust law.
May 01, · I helped to found Extinction Rebellion because only non-violent civil disobedience will stop the destruction of our natural world. Wed 1 May EDT Last modified on Wed 1 Author: Roger Hallam. The Civil Rights movement was a nonviolent movement of civil disobedience and marches. Martin Luther King, Jr. was one of its leaders and was assassinated. Feb 20, · Mahatma Gandhi and over 50, of his followers were arrested, but this non-violent civil disobedience was an important landmark in India's freedom struggle. Example Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi's non-violent resistance against the British government, activist Martin Luther King Jr. made civil disobedience the distinguishing feature of the Civil Rights Movement in mrsmagooreads.com: Vrinda Varnekar.
Non violent civil disobedience. notes “Civil Disobedience”
Brownlee, Kimberley Thank you for your feedback. Info Print Cite. Hart eds. Plato's Socrates, in the Crito , offers at least two lines of argument for legal obligation in order to defend his decision not to escape from prison. Justification 2. According to some communicative theories, condemnation itself sufficiently justifies punishment. Amnesty International. Nonviolent resistance is largely but wrongly taken as synonymous with civil disobedience. Plato, Crito , Various editions.
Nonviolent resistance NVR or nonviolent action is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests , civil disobedience , economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha , or other methods, while being nonviolent. This type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something needs to change to improve the current condition of the resisting person or group.
Civil disobedience is a nonviolent form of protest. It involves people coming together to stand against its government or any oppressor, to protest vocally and using all mediums available but without any physical force or violence. Civil disobedience cannot be an armed struggle. Civil disobedience has been used by the likes of Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela. It has been used by Martin Luther King and many other social crusaders in subsequent decades. Here are the civil obedience pros and cons.